Reading Assignment Five

This is long. Don’t freak. We’ll go over this in class. I’m also moving due dates to Tuesdays mainly for my own management. So this one will be due 9/24.

Resources for today:

Additional resources if you need them


Some of you may have had exposure to writing objectives. This may be similar or the same as what you’ve seen or it may be new. There is no “one right way” but it is important to have an understanding of what proper objectives are, how to align them with standards, and how we use them. Your will include at least one objective in each of your major projects.

To begin, it is useful to understand the differences between goals and objectives. While it is somewhat outside the scope of this course to fully develop this skill/understanding, it is important to be able to identify goals, write objectives and understand their role in teaching. One way to help separate them is to remember that goals are general statements about the long term outcome while objectives are specific, measurable and generally short term. You assess objectives and we use them as a proxy for whether or not students are meeting the goals.

In order to help make this more clear, you may wish to check out this website. In my experience, writing objectives seems to be the hardest thing for students to grasp so we will spend some class time on this. However, your own efforts in writing some example objectives that we can discuss will be very beneficial.

One important aspect to writing good lessons is writing good objectives. We will look at what are called ABCD objectives. This is simply a nice mnemonic to help you remember how to write good, measurable objectives. If you know anything about writing objectives this will be instantly clear. If you don’t, this should help make it clear. There are other ways to write objectives, but I find these usually result in clear and easily measurable objectives.

A = Audience (i.e. who will you be teaching this to?)
B = Behavior (i.e. what specific skill will the learner demonstrate?)
C = Condition (i.e. what tools or in what way will it be demonstrated?)
D = Degree (i.e. how accurately or how many times or to what degree should it be demonstrated in order to be considered “learned”?)

Example – from standard to objective

4th grade math standard 4.1.b

Use concepts of angle and measure angles. (CCSS: 4.MD)

  • Describe angles as geometric shapes that are formed wherever two rays share a common endpoint, and explain concepts of angle measurement. (CCSS: 4.MD.5)
  • Measure angles in whole-number degrees using a protractor. Sketch angles of specified measure. (CCSS: 4.MD.6)
  • Demonstrate that angle measure as additive. (CCSS: 4.MD.7)
  • Solve addition and subtraction problems to find unknown angles on a diagram in real world and mathematical problems. (CCSS: 4.MD.7)

This standard is asking that students develop the ability to use tools to measure and sketch angles. How is up to us. Lets have them use various shapes such as triangles and quadrilaterals. The audience (A) is pretty straightforward. It’s 4th graders. We can be even more specific and say “4th grades in the second semester” or “4th graders who have already completed a lesson on using a protractor” as that might be important to the lesson. The behavior (B) in this case is to measure the interior angles of various shapes with a protractor which is the condition (C). We might also add where the triangles come from like a textbook, worksheet or ones they draw themselves. The degree (D) is how well or accurately they do this or how many times they can do it before we consider them to have met the objective. So we might say, “measure angles within two degrees of accuracy and on at least five shapes without error.” Because objectives also guide our assessment we now know what we need to observe and under what conditions. Our final objective will be something like:

Given examples of several different triangles and quadrilaterals, fourth grade students who have already completed a lesson on how to use a protractor will measure the interior angles of at least five different shapes to within at least two degrees accuracy.

We might have additional objectives that involve sketching angles of specific size, using knowledge of interior sum to check their work (also a number sense standard) or to solve for an unknown which is also part of the above standard.

There isn’t one right answer to writing these objectives. There are any number of ways to state an objective, but the main point to remember is that your objective identifies the key parts in a way that is clear and ultimately measurable and leads back to the standard. An objective like “students will learn to measure angles with a protractor” is a good start but offers no way to assess whether or not the objective was met. If they can do it once is that enough? Can they make errors? Can they be off by 5 or 10 degrees and we will call it good? Regardless, we need to state these expectations in our objectives.

Because this example is a simple objective, our assessment will also be simple. We will simply check to see how many of the angles were properly measured. Students who cannot do this obviously need reteaching. One of the main reasons we assess is to know who learned and who we still need to teach. So, if one triangle had angles of 90, 45 and 45 degrees we would expect a proficient student to have answers ranging from 88-92 and 43-47 degrees respectively. Furthermore, we might expect that they understand the sum total would equal 180 degrees and adjust their answers to match. If that’s also important we would add it to the objective in the degree (angle sums must add up appropriately).

Please note that the above example is a low-level objective in that we are only asking them to recall how to use a tool correctly and show us as well as basic understanding of shapes. Your objective(s) for your projects in this class should be at a higher level. Low level objectives rarely lead to 21st century learning though they are at times necessary. As we’ve learned, Bloom’s Taxonomy is often used as a way to discuss the various types of cognitive objectives (as well as affective and psychomotor) which are sometimes grouped from low to high as recall, interpretation and problem-solving. 21st century skills are heavily weighted toward the high end of Bloom’s Taxonomy and an assessment of the learning would also need to be more involved.

21st Century Objectives

4th grade math 1.2.a

Use ideas of fraction equivalence and ordering to: (CCSS: 4.NF)

  • Explain equivalence of fractions using drawings and models.
  • Use the principle of fraction equivalence to recognize and generate equivalent fractions. (CCSS: 4.NF.1)
  • Compare two fractions with different numerators and different denominators,5 and justify the conclusions. (CCSS: 4.NF.2)

In order to have something that invites creativity, problem solving, critical thinking, collaboration, etc., lets have students develop a device to create equivalent fractions for easy adding and subtracting. For example, a clock face can represent 1/12, 1/6, 1/4, 1/3, 1/2. 1/4 (15 mins) + 1/3 (20 mins) = 7/12 (35 mins). This might be the example we use to demonstrate the project. Obviously, students cannot just jump into this cold so our overall lesson would involve the necessary instructions and guidance. Here we are only talking about the objective. The rest of the lesson is developed out of the objective and assessments.

A = 4th grade math students
B = create a tool that can be used to find and generate equivalent fractions
C = using any common object or idea and in groups or 2-3
D = works and can be easily understood by other 4th grades to add and subtract fractions.

Using any common object or idea of their choice, 4th grade students working in groups of 2-3 will create their own tool for finding and generating equivalent fractions in such a way that other 4th graders could use the tool to reliably and accurately add or subtract fractions.

This particular objective includes a high level verb, create, with respect to Bloom’s. With higher order objectives it also becomes a bit harder to discuss condition and degree. Here the condition is open-ended and the degree is dependent on user testing and observation. Unlike measuring angles, it’s hard to pinpoint how well they do on an assessment like this other than to have a good rubric.

So far, these objectives do not involve any technology. Maybe none is needed for these. This course, however, is concerned with not only 21st century teaching but also understanding how and when to integrate technology in transforming ways. Keep in mind that technology is NOT the learning objective. Rather, we will use technology in a transforming way to help enhance the students’ learning of some piece of content. Lessons including 21st century skills will likely contain cognitive objectives at the creation/synthesis level. Technology will play a role in your lessons when appropriate, but not as an objective or the focus of the lesson. This is an essential point of this class to understand.

How Can Tech “Add Value”

The above objective is pretty good and would likely be fun and engaging for students and probably a little hard as well (which is good). They will need to user-test their ideas. The students in the class may not be good candidates because they are all busy coming up with ideas. One of the ISTE standards concerns working with others at a distance using digital media. Perhaps our class partners with another and students share their ideas via a website, blog or wiki and collect feedback. Their sites include a description of the tool, original drawings and/or videos, sample problems, and a space for feedback. Because our assessment involves having other students be successful with their tool, the feedback IS the assessment. Students “turn it in” once others successfully work with it.

Your Turn

Write up a sample objective for a standard of your choice. Include it in a comment below and be sure to name the standard and grade level and paste the particular outcome (I put mine in bold above).


28 thoughts on “Reading Assignment Five

  1. 1st Grade Math
    Standard 4: (Shape, Dimension, and Geometric Relationships) 2: ( Measurement is used to compare and order objects and events) a. ( Measure lengths indirectly and by iterating length units)

    1st Grade Math 4.2.a

    A= 1st Grade Math Students
    B= Find objects with different lengths within the classroom, and practice measuring them, using different units.
    C= Using different tools such as rulers, yard sticks, and meter sticks in groups of 2-3.
    D= Working with groups to determine what the object of their choice measures. Teachers are assessing as students measure the different lengths of various objects that they find in the classroom. Students should be able to measure at least 5 objects given to them, without error.

    Using any objects of their choice within the classroom, 1st grade students working in groups of 2-3 will practice measuring their chosen objects using different units, ( rulers, yard sticks, meter sticks) in order to compare and contrast the different objects.

    Students will be given the chance to work in groups of 2- 3 people, and to choose objects of their choice within the classroom. After students have chosen their objects, they will be able to practice measuring the lengths of them, using different units ( rulers, meter sticks, yard sticks). After students have determined the lengths of their objects, they will be able to share with the class what objects they chose, why they chose those objects, what unit they decided to use in order to measure the objects, why they decided to use that unit, and the final length that they got for each of the different objects. The teacher will assess students as they are measuring their objects and while the students are sharing the information with the class.

    The only part that I struggled with was the D ( Degree) because I wasn’t sure what to really put under that part. I found writing the objective was also difficult, so hopefully I did it correctly.

    • Final Objective:
      Using any objects of their choice within the classroom, 1st grade students, working in groups of 2-3, will demonstrate measuring their chosen objects using different units, ( rulers, yard sticks, meter sticks) in order to compare and contrast the different objects lengths.

      • Amanda, this is a well-written objective. The only thing you might look at is the last line (the degree). I’m not sure what you mean by comparing the different objects. A student can see without measuring which is longer. I think you might want to have the compare/contrast different units for a given object. For example, a pencil is 18 cm or 7 inches or 180 mm whatever, and then look for patterns such as mm is always the biggest number. Why? It’s the smallest unit. When might it be the most/least useful. Etc.Of course, if you have something else in mind there that’s fine.

        The other thing to consider is how measurable is your degree. “In order to compare/contrast” isn’t measurable. “And make at least 3 observations about the objects and different units” would be.

    • After reading your ABC’s I believe that you are meeting each part of your chosen standard. The objective you have written meets the standard very well. You clarified the students will be using different units of measurement, as well as having them compare and contrast different objects.

  2. Content Area: Reading, Writing, and Communicating
    Grade Level Expectations: Kindergarten
    Standard: 1. Oral Expression and Listening

    Students Can:
    b. Add drawings or other visual displays to descriptions as desired to provide additional detail.

    A= Kindergarteners
    B= Communicate with the class what your favorite holiday is and why
    C= Create a drawing to provide details of your story
    D= Describe your story in a way that your classmates will all understand

    Objective: Using your personal experiences, kindergarteners will be sharing with the class which holiday is your favorite and why. To add to your story, create a drawing that will provide details to help you share your favorite holiday in a way they will all understand.

    • This is a good objective but you have the B and C switched. Create isn’t a condition. It’s the behavior.

      Using your personal experiences and after communicating with the class about your favorite holiday, students will create an original drawing that provides additional details and helps the class connect with your experience.

      Is there a reason you chose holidays? Maybe you are planning to hit another standard related to culture or something which is fine. However, you might also consider leaving the topic more open-ended to increase student engagement and buy-in.

      • I think that you met the standard and if your students perform well that they would be able to show good oral and listening skills. I do think that it would be a good idea to keep it more open and allow the students pick there favorite_______. They could fill in with favorite animal, or month or color, as long as they could explain why and express it to the class then they’d still meet the standard.

    • I do think you met the standards. This would be a good introduction activity for a unit in culture or even an activity to get to know the different students in your classroom. It would be good for the students to get to know things about their peers also. Which could open discussion about the differences between different people around the world.

  3. Second Grade History
    Standard 1.2.d

    Describe the history, interaction, and contribution of the various peoples and cultures that have lived in or migrated to a community or region (DOK 1-2)

    A=Second grade students
    B=Evaluate different kinds of people and see how they interact with one another
    C=Students will gather information and share it with one another
    D=Works as long as second graders are able to read and understand the articles

    Objective: Students will evaluate different types of people there were all migrating to the same place.

    Students will be grouped in groups of 4-5 students. There should be about 4-5 groups. each group will read material (articles, pages out of a textbook, etc.) and watch video clips about a certain group of travelers that were migrating to the colonies during the creation of the early Americas. Then as a group, we will discuss what happened during these times and how the groups interacted with one another.

    I did find this somewhat hard to complete. The only thing I am still unsure of is if this assignment is too advanced for second graders. The standard seems somewhat complex for second graders but as long as they are able to understand the material, I think this would be a great lesson.

    • You are off to a good start, but your objective is bit too vague. Good objectives are clear and measurable.

      After conducting research about the history of a region and working in small groups (C), 2nd grade students (A) will create an interactive presentation (B) showing at least one example of relationships between different people in the region and highlighting one contribution (D).

      The degree is something we can measure with both observation and a rubric. The behavior is open-ended but clear. They need to show, for example, how early settlers in Colorado interacted (maybe a fur trapper and a miner or Native Americans and ranchers, whatever) which could be a short skit, a video, something that isn’t just a list of things. Along the way they would highlight something like how Mexican/Spanish immigrants (maybe, it’s apparently a debate) brought chili to the west and it’s adoption by trail cooks. You expectations would help define how difficult it is for 2nd graders. Obviously, a short skit with a few pieces of factual information (maybe they should storyboard it and have it checked by the teacher to ensure they are off in left field which is also a good example of process assessment) presented to the class might be enough. I’d want some much more comprehensive from a high school group.

    • I think that your objective is good but too open-ended. What will they do with the information that they collect so that they will be able to describe the history, interactions, and contributions?

  4. Second grade: Reading & writing
    Standard: 1.2.b
    A= Second grade students
    B= Recount or describe key ideas or details from a text read aloud or information presented orally or through other media. (CCSS: SL.2.2)
    C= Students will listen to a book on tape and then re-enact the story in small groups.
    D= We will do this activity 3-5 times during the course of a unit (1-2 weeks). And if they still need work on it, we will continue this technique into other units.

    • You are off to a good start but there are a few things mixed around here. You have a behavior in both B and C and your degree is more your overall plan for implementation rather than how you will measure the behavior. You might rewrite it:

      After listening to a book on tape (C), 2nd grade students will re-enact the key events of the story following the same sequence of events and selecting events that show the rising and falling action and the resolution.

      It would be good to copy/paste the actual outcome you are looking at so we don’t have to go look it up to put your objective in context.

      • After reviewing the ABC’s, I thought each part was in great detail and met each part of your chosen standard. The objective that you have created also meets each part of the standard. It was very clear and easy to understand!

  5. Kindergarten Math
    Standard 1.1.a
    a) Use number names and the count sequence. (CCSS: K.CC)
    i: Count to 100 by ones and by tens. (CCSS: K.CC.1)
    ii: Count forward beginning from a given number within the known sequence.1 (CCSS: K.CC.2)
    iii: Write numbers from 0 to 20. Represent a number of objects with a written numeral 0-20.2 (CCSS: K.CC.3)

    A- Kindergarten Students
    B- Count by ones and tens, forward from a given number between 0 and 100, write numbers 0-20 and represent a number with objects.
    C- Students will use objects to represent a written numeral
    D- We will do this for 5 different numbers and work on it a little bit each day as review and more practice using different numbers.

    Students will count to 100 by ones and tens and use objects to represent a numeral from 0-20.

    I don’t really know if I did this right or not. I am a little confused on this I think but hopefully I sort of understand it.

    • This is mostly accurate. Only the degree needs some work. Also, might be hard to use objects for this. How do you start from 33 and count to 100 using objects? Going from 5 to 10 would be easy but 100 is a lot of objects to work with.

      After selecting a random number from a hat, kindergarten students will count orally up to the next multiple of 10 and then by 10s to 100.

      If they draw 33, they count 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 50, 60…

      This is a pretty simple objective but they are kindergartners. In a way, this could be somewhat challenging. I might run this a whole class activity with “call a friend” options and such to add some excitement. The degree is easy. Either they can count or they can’t. Do it once a week until they all are experts and then have a pizza party or something.

      As for using objects, I think after doing the class activity I’d put them in small groups and have them model one example. It would be a cool problem solving activity. If 1 paperclip represents 1 (so you start with a pile of 33 paperclips and then add one up to 40), how do you model the counting by 10 jumps? Good chance for students to be creative.

  6. Kindergarten Math
    Standard 1: Number Sense, Properties, and Operations
    Whole numbers can be used to name, count, represent, and order quantity
    A. Kindergarten Students
    B. Teach the class how to count from 1 to 20
    C. Students will create a timeline with the numbers 1-20 in groups of 2-3
    D. Working in groups, the students will create their own timeline by using color pencils and construction paper. Students can create their own art work, but make sure students are on the right track.
    Objective: Students will arrange and list numbers in chronological order by creating their own timeline, using paper and pencil to create different patterns. Teacher must assist the students and make sure they stay on track.

    • While Dora’s objective of having students create a number line does help students understand the concept of counting, it does not really emphasize the concepts of naming numbers, representing numbers, and number quantities that the standard addresses.

  7. Another good start with a few things mixed up. Most students have a hard time with the degree part. Remember, the degree is “how well” students will do something or what required pieces they are to include.

    I don’t know if “teach” is a good behavior. Maybe “students will demonstrate a creative way to name and count a random number of objects.”

    Or maybe they do the 12 days of Christmas but to 20:

    1 broken pencil
    2 clean socks
    3 red counting bears
    4 erasers

    The degree is simple. Either they correctly count to 20 or they don’t.

    By timeline I’m assuming you mean a number-line but that is a very closed activity and teacher directed. Also, the particular standard you selected doesn’t really relate to number-lines but there might be a different standard that does. This one is about naming and representing with numbers.

  8. 3rd Grade Social Studies 1.1.a

    Compare factual historical sources with works of fiction about the same topic.

    A) 3rd Grade Students
    B) Produce a movie
    C) Using both factual and fictional accounts of a historical event in groups of 5-7
    D) highlights the differences between factual and fictional accounts about the same topic

    After reading both factual and fictional accounts of the same historical event working in groups of 5-7(c), 3rd grade students (a) will produce a movie (b) highlighting the differences in information that was presented in the two sources (d).

    • You did a very good job with this assignment. The objective meets the standard to every degree. By looking at both factual and fictional information, the students will be able to compare the same information with different perspectives

  9. Kindergarten Math 1.1.b

    Count to determine the number of objects.

    A. Kindergarten Students
    B. Counting the number of a certain object
    C. Different colored candies
    D. Students can group numbers of candies together

    Objective: Students will be able to count out 1-10 pieces of candy.

    Not too sure if I did this correctly. I am still a bit confused on what this is supposed to look like.

  10. Rachel Even
    Content Area: Reading, Writing, and Communicating
    Grade Level: Kindergarten
    Standard: 1. Oral Expression and Listening

    1. Oral communication skills are built within a language-rich environment.

    Students can:
    c. Speak audibly and express thoughts, feelings, and ideas clearly. (CCSS: SL. K.4)

    A- Kindergarteners
    B- After reading a story, communicate with the class your feelings, thoughts and ideas about the story.
    C- Create a picture story to express how the story made you feel, and to provide your ideas and thoughts of the story.
    D- Be able to describe your pictures in a way that the rest of the class can understand them.

    After using your personal experiences students will be able to express there feelings, thoughts and ideas of a story and then apply those aspects to there own story by creating drawings and then share it with classmates in a way that they can understand.

    • Rachel’s objective does meet the standard. I was just a little confused by using their personal experiences aspect. Are the students going to discuss their own experience or are they sharing their feelings and personal opinions about the story that was shared? Besides that the ABCD objectives list sounded great.

  11. Joshua Turner
    Content Area: Math
    Grade Level: 5th grade
    Standard 4.2.a
    Students can: Graph points on the coordinate plane to solve real-world and mathematical problems. (CCSS: 5.G)

    A~ 5th grade math
    B~ Produce a graph of some real world area
    C~ Students will use any technology or simple objects within groups
    D~ Stduents will create scale model being able to show distance within 6 inches.

    Students will create a scale model, showing distance in a certain “common” area around the campus. The students will be able to plot the distances, and be able to figure out distances from different points on the plotted graph.

    • Both your B and C have a behavior. I’d combine them into one. The language in D is best (so make it B). For your D you need to include the expectations of the behavior – for example “has to be to scale with an explanation of the scale used.” Be careful of using “be able to” in an objective. Many teachers use this but it’s not good language for an objective. It’s more the language of a goal such as “after doing this unit, students will be able to use scale to model things.”

  12. Content Area: Mathematics
    Grade Level: Preschool
    Standard: 4. Shape, Dimension, and Geometric Relationships

    Students Can: Group objects according to their size using standard and non-standard forms (height, weight, length, or color brightness) of measurement

    A- Preschoolers
    B- How to group objects with different physical attributes
    C- They will be given different objects such as blocks that have different shapes, weights, colors, and lengths.
    D- They will be given these blocks. Will first just get to play with them to let me see what they do with them without any instruction. Then I will give them instruction to divide them into different groups based on a certain attribute.

    Objective: Students will be able to divide a group of objects into categories based on certain attributes both by themselves and when given specific instruction.

  13. Seventh Grade
    2: Physical and Personal Wellness in Health
    1: Analyze factors that influence healthy eating behaviors
    B: Analyze how social and cultural messages about food and eating influence nutrition choices

    A: 7th Grade
    B: Students will be able to discuss the differences between different eating habits (ie. media presentation for fast food vs healthy foods)
    C: Students will create a video comparing healthy and unhealthy eating habits and how media plays a role in the choice that are made
    D: Through the creation of a movie, students will show understanding in regards to media outreach and eating habits

    Objective: Students will be able to discuss the different in eating habits and how media plays a role in what they eat.

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